The Barents Sea
The Barents Sea (BS) is a high-latitude shallow sea situated to the north of Norway and Russia. The productive BS ecosystem has been affected by human activity for several hundred years, mainly by fishing and hunting and more recently by climate warming. The variability in productivity in the ecosystem may have substantial impact on ecosystem services in the region, especially changes in the large and economically important fish stocks in this area. The Northeast Arctic cod Gadus morhua, Norwegian Spring spawning herring Clupea harengus and capelin Mallotus villosus constitute key fish species in the BS ecosystem. Spatial structure within the BS system is widespread and includes species distributions, survival of larva and juvenile fish and trophic control. In addition to the spatiotemporal overlap between species, developmental stage, size and stock state may influence the strength and type of trophic interactions.